вторник, 8 июля 2008 г.

Сокращения в английском языке

Владимир Бойко
Американская Академия Бизнес Английского

Сокращения в английском языке в основном используются в разговорной речи. Но, так как письменная речь все более становится неофициальной (электронные письма, заметки), все чаще сокращения можно увидеть на письме.

Утвердительные сокращения

I'm --- I am --- Пример: I'm waiting for my friend.
I'll --- I will --- Пример: I'll see you tomorrow.
I'd --- I had / I would --- Пример: I'd better leave now. ИЛИ I'd already eaten by the time he arrived.
I've --- I have -- Пример -: I've worked here for many years.

You're --- You are --- Пример: You're joking!
You'll --- You will --- Пример: You'll be sorry!
You'd --- You had / would --- Пример: You'd left before he arrived, hadn't you? ИЛИ You'd better hurry up.
You've --- You have --- Пример: You've been to London many times.

He's --- He is / has --- Пример: He's on the phone now. ИЛИ He's been playing tennis since 10 this morning.
He'll --- He will --- Пример: He'll be here tomorrow.
He'd --- He had / would --- Пример: He'd prefer to meet you later in the week. ИЛИ He'd finished before the meeting began.

She's --- She is / has --- Пример: She's watching TV at the moment. ИЛИ She's had a lot of trouble lately.
She'll --- She will --- Пример: She'll be at the meeting.
She'd --- She had / would --- Пример: She'd been working for two hours when he telephoned. ИЛИ She'd like to have a glass of wine.

It's --- It is / has --- Пример: It's been long time since we saw each other last. ИЛИ It's very difficult to concentrate.
It'll --- It will --- Пример: It'll be here soon.
It'd --- It would / had --- Пример: It'd be difficult to say no. ИЛИ It'd been a long time.

We're --- We are --- Пример: We're working hard on the Smith account this week.
We'll --- We will --- Пример: We'll begin when he arrives.
We'd --- We had / would --- Пример: We'd better hurry up if we want to catch the train. ИЛИ We'd finished the meeting before you arrived.
We've --- We have --- Пример: We've been waiting for you!

They're --- They are --- Пример: They're studying German this afternoon.
They'll --- They will --- Пример: They'll finish soon if they concentrate.
They'd --- They had / would --- Пример: They'd eaten their lunch when she stopped by to say hello. ИЛИ They'd rather not come to the meeting.
They've --- They have --- Пример: They've just purchased a new home.

There's --- There is / has --- Пример: There's a hotel in the next town. ИЛИ There's been too many telephone calls today!
There'll --- There will --- Пример: There'll be a price to pay!
There'd --- There had / would --- Пример: There'd better be a good explanation for this. ИЛИ There'd be some reason for that.

That's --- That is / has --- Пример: That's been on my mind lately. ИЛИ That's why I can't come.
That'll --- That will --- Пример: That'll happen sooner than you think.
That'd --- That had / would --- Пример: That'd be the reason why. ИЛИ That'd happened before my time.

Отрицательные сокращения

aren't --- are not --- Пример: They aren't coming next week.

can't --- can not --- Пример: I can't understand you.
couldn't --- could not --- Пример: He couldn't get his shoes on!

didn't --- did not --- Пример: We didn't visit Rome. We went straight to Florence.
doesn't --- does not --- Пример: He doesn't play golf.
don't --- do not --- Пример: They don't like cheese.

hadn't --- had not --- Пример: I hadn't thought of that!
hasn't --- has not --- Пример: She hasn't telephoned yet.

isn't --- is not --- Пример: She isn't listening to you.

mustn't --- must not --- Пример: Children mustn't play with fire.
needn't --- need not --- Пример: You needn't worry about that.
shouldn't --- should not --- Пример: You shouldn't smoke cigarettes.

wasn't --- was not --- Пример: I wasn't joking when I said that.
weren't --- were not --- Пример: They weren't invited to the party.
won't --- will not --- Пример: I won't be able to attend the conference.
wouldn't --- would not --- Пример: She wouldn't be surprised if he showed up at the party.

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