вторник, 8 июля 2008 г.

Слова – связки

Владимир Бойко
Американская Академия Бизнес Английского
www.aabe.com.ua



Слова-связки помогают нам связывать предложения.

Подача примеров

For example
For instance
Namely

Самые распространеные слова - for example или for instance.

Namely мы используем, если следом за этим мы указываем на что-то конкретное.
"There are two problems: namely, the expense and the time."

Добавление информации

And
In addition
As well as
Also
Too
Furthermore
Moreover
Apart from
In addition to
Besides


Часто для перечисления мы используем and. При перечислении мы ставим комы перед каждым пунктом, но не перед and.
"We discussed training, education and the budget."

Also используется для подачи дополнительной мысли или усиления. "We also spoke about marketing."
Вы можете использовать also с not only для усиления.
"We are concerned not only by the costs, but also by the competition."
Обычно предложения не начинаются с also. Вместо этого, используйте In addition, или

In addition to this…
As well as используется в начале или в середине предложения.
"As well as the costs, we are concerned by the competition."
"We are interested in costs as well as the competition."

Too используется либо в конце предложения, либо после подлежащего и имеет значение as well.
"They were concerned too."
"I, too, was concerned."


Apart from и besides очеь часто используются со значением as well as, или in addition to.
"Apart from Rover, we are the largest sports car manufacturer."
"Besides Rover, we are the largest sports car manufacturer."
Moreover и furthermore дают дополнительную информацию к тому, о чем Вы говорите.
"Marketing plans give us an idea of the potential market. Moreover, they tell us about the competition."


Подведение итогов

In short
In brief
In summary
To summarise
In a nutshell
To conclude
In conclusion

Эти слова используются в начале предложений для подведения итогов того, о чем говорилось раньше.


Последовательность мыслей

The former, … the latter
Firstly, secondly, finally
The first point is
Lastly
The following

The former и the latter используются, когда Вы хотите послаться на предыдущую мысль.
"Marketing and finance are both covered in the course. The former is studied in the first term and the latter is studied in the final term."

Firstly, … secondly, … finally (или lastly) используются для перечисления


"fourthly", "fifthly"
используются редко. Вместо этого, используйте the first point, the second point, the third point и т.д.


The following
используйте в начале списка
"The following people have been chosen to go on the training course: N Peters, C Jones and A Owen."


Обьяснение

Due to / due to the fact that
Owing to / owing to the fact that
Because
Because of
Since
As

После Due to и owing to нужно использовать существительное
"Due to the rise in oil prices, the inflation rate rose by 1.25%."
"Owing to the demand, we are unable to supply all items within 2 weeks."
Если Вы хотите после этих слов использовтаь придаточное предложение, используйте перед ним the fact that.
"Due to the fact that oil prices have risen, the inflation rate has gone up by 1%25."
"Owing to the fact that the workers have gone on strike, the company has been unable to fulfil all its orders."

Because / because of
После Because of следует существительное.
"Because of bad weather, the football match was postponed."
Because может использоваться в начале и в середине предложения. Например "Because it was raining, the match was postponed."
"We believe in incentive schemes, because we want our employees to be more productive."


Since / as
Since и as означают because.
"Since the company is expanding, we need to hire more staff."
"As the company is expanding, we need to hire more staff."


Указание следствия

Therefore
So
Consequently
This means that
As a result


Therefore, so, consequently и as a result взаимозаменимы
"The company are expanding. Therefore / So / Consequently / As a result, they are taking on extra staff."
So более разговорный вариант


Сопоставление мыслей


But
However
Although / even though
Despite / despite the fact that
In spite of / in spite of the fact that
Nevertheless
Nonetheless
While
Whereas
Unlike
In theory… in practice…



But более неофициально чем however. Как правило, не используется в начале предложения.
"He works hard, but he doesn't earn much."
"He works hard. However, he doesn't earn much."


После Although, despite и in spite of указывается само сопоставление.
"Although it was cold, she went out in shorts."
"In spite of the cold, she went out in shorts."


Despite и in spite of используются также, как и due to и owing to. После них должно идти существительное. Если Вы хотите также после них использовать глагол, используйте the fact that.
"Despite the fact that the company was doing badly, they took on extra employees."


Nevertheless и nonetheless означают in spite of that или anyway.
"The sea was cold, but he went swimming nevertheless." (In spite of the fact that it was cold.)
"The company is doing well. Nonetheless, they aren't going to expand this year."
While, whereas и unlike ипользуются для того, чтобы показать, как две вещи разнятся.
"While my sister has blue eyes, mine are brown."
"Taxes have gone up, whereas social security contributions have gone down."
"Unlike in the UK, the USA has cheap petrol."
In theory… in practice… показывают неожиданный результат
"In theory, teachers should prepare for lessons, but in practice, they often don't have enough time."

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