вторник, 8 июля 2008 г.

Easily Confused or Misused Words

Владимир Бойко
Американская Академия Бизнес Английского

affect / effect

Effect – это существительное, переводится как «эффект»: “The sound of the falling rain had a calming effect, nearly putting me to sleep.” Affect – глагол, переводится как «влиять»: “His loud humming was affecting my ability to concentrate.” Обратите внимание, что слово effect также может использоваться в качестве глагола, со значением «осуществлять»: “The speaker's somber tone effected a dampening in the general mood of the audience.”

all together / altogether

All together – «все вместе». “We put the pots and pans all together on the shelf.” All together используется тогда, когда между словами all и together можно добавить еще несколько слов: “We put all the pots and pans together on the shelf.” Altogether имеет значение «всецело, абсолютно»: “I am altogether pleased to be receiving this award.”

allusion / illusion
Allusion : - «аллюзия, упоминание»: “The speech made allusions to the final report.”
Illusion – «иллюзия»: “The policy is designed to give an illusion of reform.”

alternately / alternatively
Alternately – это наречие, означающее «по очереди»: “We alternately spun the wheel in the game.” Alternatively – наречие, означающее «в противном случае»: “You can choose a large bookcase or, alternatively, you can buy two small ones.”

beside / besides
Beside – это предлог, означающий «возле»: “Stand here beside me.” Besides – это наречие со значением «кроме того»: “Besides, I need to tell you about the new products my company offers.”

bimonthly / semimonthly
Bimonthly – «каждых два месяца»: “I brought the cake for the bimonthly office party.” Bimonthly также используется в качестве существительного, обозначающего периодику, выпускающуюся раз в два месяца: “The company publishes several popular bimonthlies.” Semimonthly – «два раза в месяц»: “We have semimonthly meetings on the 1st and the 15th.”

capital / capitol

capital – «столица»; capitol – место собрания законодательного органа . Слово capital также переводится как «капитал» и «большая буква».

cite / site
Cite – глагол, означающий «цитировать»: “I cited several eminent scholars in my study of water resources.” Site существительное «место»: “They chose a new site for the factory just outside town.”

clothes / cloths
clothes: - «одежда» : “Just a moment, let me change my clothes.”
“Tommy, get your clothes on!” cloths: -«кусок материи»:
“There are some cloths in the closet.”

complement / compliment
Complement –«дополнение» : “The red sweater is a perfect complement to the outfit.” Compliment – «комплимент»: “I received compliments about my new outfit.”

concurrent / consecutive
Concurrent – «одновременный» : “The concurrent strikes of several unions crippled the economy.” Consecutive – «последовательный»: “The union called three consecutive strikes in one year.”

connote / denote
Connote – «являть собой»: “The word ‘espionage’ connotes mystery and intrigue.” Denote – «обозначать, выражать»: “The symbol for ‘pi’ denotes the number 3.14159.”

convince / persuade

Когда мы убеждаем кого-то в том, что что-то есть правильным, мы используем глагол convince . Когда мы убеждаем кого-то сделать что-то, используется глагол persuade . “Pointing out that I was overworked, my friends persuaded [not convinced] me to take a vacation. Now that I'm relaxing on the beach with my book, I am convinced [not persuaded] that they were right.” Следуя из этого, convince не используется с инфинитивом.

council / councilor / counsel / counselor
councilor – «член совета» council – «совет (как организация)». counselor – «консультант» counsel – «совет»

dead / died
dead: - «мертвый» : “Unfortunately, our dog has been dead for a few months.”
“Don't touch that bird. It's dead.”
died: - «умер»: “His grandfather died two years ago.”
“A number of people have died in the accident.”

discreet / discrete
Discreet – «осторожный, рассудительный» : “Her discreet handling of the touchy situation put him at ease.”
Discrete – «состоящий из отдельных частей»: “Each company in the conglomerate operates as a discrete entity.”

disinterested / uninterested
Disinterested – «беспристрастный» : “We appealed to the disinterested mediator to facilitate the negotiations.”
Uninterested – «незаинтересованный»: “They seemed uninterested in our offer.”

elicit / illicit
Elicit – «извлекать, выявлять».
Illicit – «незаконный». “No matter how hard I tried to elicit a few scandalous stories from her, she kept all knowledge of illicit goings-on discreetly to herself. ”

emigrant / immigrant
Emigrant – «эмигрант»: “The emigrants spent four weeks aboard ship before landing in Los Angeles.”
Immigrant – «иммигрант»: “Most of the immigrants easily found jobs.” One emigrates from a place; one immigrates to another.

farther / further
Farther – «более отдаленный»: “We drove 50 miles today; tomorrow, we will travel 100 miles farther.”
Further – «дальнейший, дополнительный»: “We won't be able to suggest a solution until we are further along in our evaluation of the problem.” “They stated further that they would not change the policy.”

few / less
Few – «меньше», используется с исчисляемыми предметами: “This department has few employees.”
Less «меньше», используется с неисчисляемыми предметами: “Which jar holds less water?”

figuratively / literally

– «образно»: “Happening upon the shadowy figure, they figuratively jumped out of their shoes.”
Literally – «буквально»: “I'm not exaggerating when I say I literally fell off my chair.”

flaunt / flout

flaunt – «рисоваться, щеголять»: “Eager to flaunt her knowledge of a wide range of topics, Helene dreamed of appearing on a TV trivia show.”
flout – «насмехаться»: “Lewis disliked boarding school and took every opportunity to flout the house rules.”

foreword / forward
Foreword – «вступительное слово»: “In my foreword I explained my reasons for writing the book.” Forward – «вперед, передний»: “I sat in the forward section of the bus.” “Please step forward when your name is called.” Forward – также глагол, означающий «пересылать»: “Forward the letter to the customer's new address.”

founder / flounder
Основное значение слова founder – «погружаться»: “The ship foundered after colliding with an iceberg.”
Flounder – «спотыкаться, запутывать»: “After floundering through the first half of the course, Amy finally passed with the help of a tutor.”

hanged / hung
Hanged – «повешенный, как наказание»: “They hanged the prisoner for treason.” “The convicted killer was hanged at dawn.”
Hung – «повешенный, в значении находящийся выше поверхности»: “I hung the painting on the wall.” “The painting was hung at a crooked angle.”

historic / historical

historic – «исторический», в значении «важный для истории», в то время, как слово historical просто обозначает действие, происшедшее в прошлом: “a historic summit meeting between the prime ministers;” “historical buildings torn down in the redevelopment.”

lightening / lightning

– «освещать»;
lightning – «молния»: “The lightning struck, lightening the sky.”

lose / loose
Lose – «терять»: “I lost my watch!” “Have you ever lost anything valuable?”
Loose – «свободный, просторный»: “Your trousers are very loose!”

passed / past
Passed – это форма прошлого времени глагола pass . («проходить»)
Past – «прошедший». “In the past decade, I passed over countless opportunities; I was determined not to let them get past me again.”

precede / proceed

precede – «предшествовать».
Proceed – «продолжать». “He preceded me into the room; once I caught up with him I proceeded to tell him off.”

principal / principle
Principal – «начальник»: “The school principal has 20 years of teaching experience.”
Principal – «главный»: “The necessity of moving to another city was the principal reason I turned down the job offer.” Principle – также «принцип»: “They refused to compromise their principles.”

quite / quiet
Quite – «достаточно»: “This text is quite difficult”
Quiet – «тихий, спокойный»: “Could you please be quiet?”

stationary / stationery
Stationary – «неподвижный»: “They maneuvered around the stationary barrier in the road.”
Stationery – «канцелярские принадлежности»: “We printed the letters on company stationery.”

sensible / sensitive
Sensible – «благоразумный»: “I wish you would be more sensible”
Sensitive – «чувствительный»: “Mary is a very sensitive woman.”

venal / venial
Venal – «продажный, коррумпированный»;
venial – «простительный, незначительный»: “In the Catholic church, a venial sin is one that is minor and pardonable, whereas a mortal sin is a serious transgression involving more venal or depraved behavior.”

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