вторник, 8 июля 2008 г.

Linking ideas

Владимир Бойко
Американская Академия Бизнес Английского

Некоторые слова и словосочетания помогают развить идеи и установить взаимосвязь между ними. Обратите внимание, что большинство этих фраз используются, в основном, в письменном официальном стиле.

with regard to; regarding; as regards; as far as ……… is concerned, as for
Данные фразы концентрируют внимание на информацию, следующую за ними. Как правило, они используются для смены темы.

His grades in science subjects are excellent. As regards humanities …
With regard to the latest market figures we can see that ...
Regarding our efforts to improve the local economy, we have made ...
As far as I am concerned, we should continue to develop our resources.
As for John's thoughts, let's take a look at this report he sent me.

on the other hand; while; whereas

Данные словосочетания используются для выражения сравнения.

Football is popular in England, while in Australia they prefer cricket.
We've been steadily improving our customer service center. On the other hand our shipping department needs to be redesigned.
Jack thinks we're ready to begin whereas Tom things we still need to wait.

however, nonetheless, nevertheless
Используются для преподнесения сравниваемых идей.

Smoking is proved to be dangerous to the health. Nonetheless, 40% of the population smokes.
Our teacher promised to take us on a field trip. However, he changed his mind last week.
Peter was warned not to invest all of his savings in the stock market. Nevertheless, he invested and lost everything.

moreover, furthermore, in addition

Мы используем эти словосочетания для того, чтобы добавить что-то к уже сказанному. Использование этих фраз – более изящно, чем просто использование союза 'and'

His problems with his parents are extremely frustrating. Moreover, there seems to be no easy solution to them.
I assured him that I would come to his presentation. Furthermore, I also invited a number of important representatives from the local chamber of commerce.
Our energy bills have been increasing steadily. In addition to these costs, our telephone costs have doubled over the past six months.

therefore, as a result, consequently
Данные словосочетания указывают на то, что следующие за ними идеи логически следуют из предыдущих.

He reduced the amount of time studying for his final exams. As a result, his marks were rather low.
We've lost over 3,000 customers over the past six months. Consequently, we have been forced to cut back our advertising budget.
The government has drastically reduced its spending. Therefore, a number of programs have been canceled.

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